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Research Summary:

Two fields that I have a passion for are neuroscience and the biochemistry of lipid signaling. My group combines these fields to understand how lipid signaling drives changes in all aspects of neurophysiology through a systems neuroscience approach. One lipid signaling system currently being investigated centers on endogenous cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are lipids from the plant Cannabis, also known as marijuana.

Cannabinoid compounds activate receptors throughout the body and the nervous system and regulate a myriad of neurophysiological pathways. These receptors did not evolve to prepare for the likelihood that an organism would someday ingest compounds from a cannabis plant. They evolved in concert with endogenous signaling molecules that are collectively called endocannabinoids. The most studied of these are the lipid signaling molecules, Anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. However, there is growing evidence that these two lipids are not alone in exerting cannabimimetic (cannabinoid-like) effects in the body. Many of these novel endocannabinoid analogs are produced throughout the nervous system.

Interestingly, Anandamide is arguably the world’s most famous molecule in a very specific class of molecules structurally referred to as N-acyl amides. While it is true that N-acyl amides are not yet particularly well known throughout scientific communities, we will argue that they are quite well known throughout all of the plant and animal kingdoms in that they are ubiquitous molecules that are formed from simple fatty acids and amines and are likely present in most-if not all-forms of life. This presence provides an opportunistic situation for them to be used as signaling molecules and as metabolic precursors to additional signaling molecules. How they are synthesized, metabolized, and what they do in each of these systems is largely unknown.

What ARE they doing in the brain and body?! Well… that’s what we are in the process of finding out. One of our primary techniques we use in order to study these endogenous lipids is through mass spectrometry. The picture at the top of the page shows a partial view of the internal core of one of the tandem mass spectrometers we have used in our studies over the years. Combining an expertise in lipid mass spectrometry and neuroscience is a powerful combination that allows us to work with collaborators from around the world and to ultimately come to new and exciting discoveries about the field of lipid neuroscience.

Selected Publications

A more complete list can be found

Bradshaw HB Theorem 4
$$\begin{aligned} \left| {P\left( {W_{n} \le {w_0}} \right) - {P_{\overline{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) } \right| \le \frac{{{P_{\overline{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) \left( {1 - {P_{\overline{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) } \right) }}{{{p_{\overline{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0} + 1} \right) }}\sum \limits _{i = 1}^n {\min \left\{ {{\alpha _i},\frac{{{\beta _i} - {\alpha _i}}}{{{w_0} + 1}}} \right\} , } \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \alpha _i = 1 - {p^{r_{n,i}}_{n,i}} - {r_{n,i}}{{q_{n,i}}}{p^{r_{n,i}}_{n,i}}\; { and }\; \beta _i = {r_{n,i}}\left( {{p^{ - {r_{n,i}}}_{n,i}} - 1 - {r_{n,i}}{{q_{n,i}}}{p^{r_{n,i}}_{n,i}}} \right) . \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned} \left| {P\left( {W_{n} \le {w_0}} \right) - {P_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) } \right| \le \sum \limits _{i = 1}^n {\sum \limits _k {\frac{{k\left( {k - 1} \right) }}{{{r_{n,i}} + k - 1}}C_{{r_{n,i}} + k - 1}^k{q^k_{n,i}}{p^{r_{n,i}}_{n,i}}\mathop {\sup }\limits _{w \ge k} {f_{{C_{{w_0}}}}}\left( w \right) } }. \end{aligned}$$
$$\begin{aligned}\left| {P\left( {W_{n} \le {w_0}} \right) - {P_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) } \right| \\\quad \le \displaystyle \frac{{{P_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) \left( {1 - {P_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) } \right) }}{{{p_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0} + 1} \right) }}\sum \limits _{i = 1}^n {\sum \limits _k {\frac{{k\left( {k - 1} \right) }}{{{r_{n,i}} + k - 1}}C_{{r_{n,i}} + k - 1}^k{q^k_{n,i}}{p^{r_{n,i}}_{n,i}}} \min \left\{ {\frac{1}{{{w_0} + 1}},\frac{1}{k}} \right\} } \\\quad \le \displaystyle \frac{{{P_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) \left( {1 - {P_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0}} \right) } \right) }}{{{p_{\bar{{\lambda _n}}} }\left( {{w_0} + 1} \right) }}\sum \limits _{i = 1}^n {\min \left\{ {{\alpha _i},\frac{{{\beta _i} - {\alpha _i}}}{{{w_0} + 1}}} \right\} , } \\ \end{aligned}$$

Hence, the theorem is proved. \(\square\)

In the same way as in Remarks 3, we notice that ( 7 ) is a special case of Theorem 4 with \(r_{n,i} = 1; n=1,2,\ldots ; i = 1,2,\ldots n.\)

We conclude this paper with the following comments. The received results in this paper are extensions and generalizations of results in Teerapabolarn and Wongkasem ( 2007 ), Teerapabolarn ( 2009 , 2013 ). The results would be more interesting and valuable if the discussed negative-binomial random variables in this paper are dependent. We shall take this up in the next study.

All authors contributed equally and significantly to this work. All authors drafted the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The authors would like to express their gratitude to the referees for valuable comments and suggestions. The research was supported by the Vietnam’s National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED, Vietnam) under Grant 101.01-2010.02.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

University of Finance and Marketing, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
©Hung and Giang.2016

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Yet, he couldn’t see my vision….?! I thought it was pretty obvious….

And it made me think about all the husbands of the world who are unsupportive in what us DIY’ers do.

Support is showing a little interest in and appreciation for what we do.

It’s telling us that we’re doing a good job, even if you don’t “see our vision.”

(And no, we don’t want to hire someone to do it for us).

Regardless, I was still very proud!

So far, I’ve bought 25 bags of mulch for $2.00 each ($50), and I bought 16 bags of white marble chips for $3.00 each ($48). I know that I need more materials, and yes, it does add up. But, when doing it yourself, it’s sooo much cheaper! Plus, the materials aren’t that expensive; just depends on what size of the project!

Mine needs a lot of work, so I’ll have to buy more supplies. But if you’re doing a small part of your yard or patio, it’s actually pretty affordable! You just have to do the work. 😉

There’s something oddly fascinating about pressure washing. Don’t you agree? Seeing that grime instantly blasted away with the touch of pressurized water…ahhhhhh……

I was able to get the patio done in about 2 hours. Could have taken me less time, but I wasn’t in any hurry. It was kind of therapeutic.

Click here to learn more about the RYOBI 2,000-PSI Electric Pressure Washer I used.

The next step for the patio is to scour Craigslist or get creative about what kind of seating I want for the space!

If you remember, some time ago I spray painted my welcome mat . It got a lot of love, but,of course, the “haters” were hatin’, too.

Those nay-sayers said, “But it will get dirty!” or “That will never hold up!”

And I’m happy to say that, yes, while it got dirty (ummm…it is the outdoors…), it actually cleaned up well and it’s been holding up with hardly any chipping!

I had to be very careful to make sure that I didn’t get the pressure washer nozzle close to the mat, or else it would ruin it. I’d recommend just getting a hose and hosing it down.

(LOL, don’t mind the dirt on the door….)

Related: See how I replaced, painted, and stenciled this new kitchen door .

So if you’ve been thinking about spray painting your welcome mat , too, it’s totally possible! The only caveat is that we don’t use this door often, so we hadn’t had a lot of foot traffic on it, which may or may not affect how well it holds up.

Because of the amount of stuff I ended up getting, and the number of trips to The Home Depot, it probably would have been easier (although more expensive??) ordering mulch and rocks by the truckload.

If you’re going to need a lot, at least check into it before you get started. I am sure I’ll be doing that for another big project like this!



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