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Such contracts cannot be compiled (even if they contain implemented functions alongside non-implemented functions), but they can be used as base contracts:

If a contract inherits from an abstract contract and does not implement all non-implemented functions by overriding, it will itself be abstract.

Note that a function without implementation is different from a Function Type even though their syntax looks very similar.

Example of function without implementation (a function declaration):

Example of a Function Type (a variable declaration, where the variable is of type function ):

Abstract contracts decouple the definition of a contract from its implementation providing better extensibility and self-documentation and facilitating patterns like the Template method and removing code duplication. Abstract contracts are useful in the same way that defining methods in an interface is useful. It is a way for the designer of the abstract contract to say “any child of mine must implement this method”.

Interfaces are similar to abstract contracts, but they cannot have any functions implemented. There are further restrictions:

Some of these restrictions might be lifted in the future.

Interfaces are basically limited to what the Contract ABI can represent, and the conversion between the ABI and an Interface should be possible without any information loss.

Interfaces are denoted by their own keyword:

Contracts can inherit interfaces as they would inherit other contracts.

Libraries are similar to contracts, but their purpose is that they are deployed only once at a specific address and their code is reused using the DELEGATECALL ( CALLCODE until Homestead) feature of the EVM. This means that if library functions are called, their code is executed in the context of the calling contract, i.e. this points to the calling contract, and especially the storage from the calling contract can be accessed. As a library is an isolated piece of source code, it can only access state variables of the calling contract if they are explicitly supplied (it would have no way to name them, otherwise). Library functions can only be called directly (i.e. without the use of DELEGATECALL ) if they do not modify the state (i.e. if they are view or pure functions), because libraries are assumed to be stateless. In particular, it is not possible to destroy a library unless Solidity’s type system is circumvented.

Libraries can be seen as implicit base contracts of the contracts that use them. They will not be explicitly visible in the inheritance hierarchy, but calls to library functions look just like calls to functions of explicit base contracts ( L.f() if L is the name of the library). Furthermore, internal functions of libraries are visible in all contracts, just as if the library were a base contract. Of course, calls to internal functions use the internal calling convention, which means that all internal types can be passed and memory types will be passed by reference and not copied. To realize this in the EVM, code of internal library functions and all functions called from therein will at compile time be pulled into the calling contract, and a regular JUMP call will be used instead of a DELEGATECALL .

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REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management

This section gives the complete list of all published deliverables and links to download the full documents. Deliverables are listed in reversed chronological order, i.e. new ones appear on top.

If you prefer to have an overview of the deliverables per Work Package, you can refer to the Judd boots Black PAUL ANDREW gsKvMQt3RX

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This is the third and final in a series of three Policy Briefs published by the REFORM project. This Policy Brief presents key conclusions and recommendations of the REFORM project, which are relevant for policy-makers involved in river basin management planning.The key conclusions and recommendations address the following themes:- REFORM hydromorphology framework- REFORM hydromorphological assessment methods- Remote sensing for river hydromorphological investigation- Role of vegetation and floodplains- Groundwater-river interactions


Submitted by tom.buijse@delt... on

The present report presents guidance and decision support for cost-effective river and floodplain restoration and its benefits. It serves as a portal to the web-based information system or wiki developed within REFORM and summarizes the contents, structure and functionality of this wiki. The wiki guides the planning process and design of cost-effective and hydromorphologically relevant restoration and its benefits.

D6.3_REFORM_deliverable_Guidelines_and_decision_support v4.pdf

Submitted by tom.buijse@delt... on

This document gives an overview of the REFORM newsletters and leaflets. All newsletters and leaflets are available online at the public website of REFORM ( ). For each item in the newsletter the teaser is given as well as the hyperlink to the full article.

7.6_REFORM_newsletters and leaflets - FINAL.pdf

Submitted by tom.buijse@delt... on

This deliverable D4.5 summarizes information and experiences for thirteen river types and lists meta-data analysis results based on 844 publications. The report starts with a summary of a literature meta-data analysis, using the REFORM river reach typology. The main component of the report deals with fact sheets and per river type provides a synthesis of restoration experiences describing best and efficient restoration practices, including promising restoration techniques and variables suited for monitoring restoration.

D4_5 REFORM Factsheets for restoration projects final v2.pdf

Submitted by tom.buijse@delt... on

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> Research > Sponsored Programs

Sponsored programs are those projects and/or activities which are originated and conducted by members of the faculty or, in some instances, by staff members. Such programs are supported wholly or in part by external restricted funds awarded to theuniversity.

The Office of Sponsored Programs (OSP) is a support structure and seeks to assist faculty members in a variety of ways — identifying funding sources; assisting with the development of proposals, including the development of a budget; proposal processing, which includes pre-and post-award administration of grants or contract; and review. In addition, the OSP is an advocate for a campus environment that is conducive to the research enterprise, and advises the administration on matters of regulatory compliance, internal sponsorship of scholarly activities and other relatedissues.

The OSP is the primary mechanism for providing direct assistance to faculty and staff in identifying appropriate sources for external funds of sponsored projects and programs. Sponsored projects usually include a line item budget which states monetary needs of the project. This budget may or may not include indirectcosts.


The mission of the Office ofSponsored Programs is to serve as an advocate for a campus environment conducive to the research enterprise and advise the administration on matters of regulatory compliance, internal sponsorship of scholarly activities and other related issues. The office also seeks to assist faculty members in identifying funding sources, assisting with development and review of proposals, and assuringcompliance.


The Office of Sponsored Programs works closely with the Office of Institutional Advancement to process funded projects here at the university. The following chart should be used when processing yourproposalapplication.

Faculty Proposal Submission Form This form is to alert Sponsored Programs that you will be submitting a proposal for a particular grant announcement and to eliminate duplicate proposal submissions from DSU faculty. After you submit this form, you will need to returnto the forms library where you should follow the “ProcessProcess”.

The individual responsible for conceiving and enacting a project is known as the principal investigator. When this individual takes on the task of preparing a proposal for submission to an outside source, he or she agrees to manage the ensuing grant or contract in compliance with the terms, conditions, and policies of both the sponsor and theUniversity.

Only one principal investigator should be named to delineate clear lines of responsibility for project management. In some instances, a colleague central to the project may be named co-principal investigator or be given another appropriatetitle.

The principal investigator must be a member of the full­time faculty, professional, or senior staff, or be an administrative officer of the University. Depending on the nature of the proposal, individuals with other University appointments may serve as principal investigators. Naming an individual in the proposal who is not an employee of the University does not commit the institution to employing thatindividual.

Unless otherwise indicated in the proposal, principal investigators are expected to be in residence at the University during the period of project operation. Principal investigators seeking a leave of absence during this period must obtain written authorization from the sponsor through the Office of SponsoredPrograms.

All sponsored projects that utilize campus facilities such as laboratories, classrooms, etc., involve human subjects, animals, radioactive materials, or toxic or hazardous substances, involve any other faculty, staff or graduate students as part of the project budget, or in any way affect the University, must comply with University regulations. Requests must be submitted through the OSP for review andapproval.

When traveling using federal funds, travelers are required to use an airline that is designated as a U.S. flag carrier for every portion of the route per the Fly America Act (49 U.S.C. 40118) . To determine if the flight complies with Fly America, look at the flight number on the boarding pass or flight coupon and verify that it begins with the abbreviation of the U.S. flag carrier (ex: Delta flight DL# 1234). There are very few floral sandals Pink amp; Purple Sophia Webster ClkOl5dN
. If you believe you meet one of the exceptions, please complete the Fly America Act Checklist for Federal Funds form ( found in the Sponsored Programs’ Forms Library) and turn it into the Office of Sponsored Programs with supporting documentation for approval PRIOR to purchasing the flight. Some exceptions requiring a waiver include: when a U.S. flag carrier is not available on a particular route; when using a U.S. flag carrier would increase the number of aircraft changes outside the U.S. by 2 or more; extend travel time by 6 hours or more; or require a connecting time of 4 hours or more at an overseas interchangepoint.

Office of SponsoredPrograms

Ms. Renee S. Jones
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Supplement to The Lambda Calculus

To show that all recursive functions can be represented in the \(\lambda\)-calculus, one reproduces the definition of recursive functions in the \(\lambda\)-calculus. We recall the definition.

Definition The class of is the (smallest) class of functions from natural numbers to natural numbers that contains:

and is closed under the operations of:

: if \(G\) and \(H\) are recursive functions, and if the numeric function \(F\) satisfies the relation:

then \(F\) is a recursive function.

: if \(G\) and \(H\) are recursive functions, and if the numeric function \(F\) satisfies the relations:

: if \(G\) is a recursive function, and if the numeric function \(F\) satisfies the relation

Say that a number-theoretic function \(f\) of arity \(n\) is \(\lambda\)-definable if there exists a \(\lambda\)-term \(F\) with the property that for every natural number \(a\) and for every \(n\)-tuple \((a_1 ,\ldots a_n)\) of natural numbers, we have


To show that the class of recursive functions can be represented in the \(\lambda\)-calculus, one follows its definition; the step-by-step construction of an arbitrary recursive function from the initial functions can be mimicked in the \(\lambda\)-calculus. One shows first that all initial functions can be represented; then one shows that the operations of substitution/composition, definition by primitive recursion, and minimalization can likewise be expressed. We require, first, a representation of natural numbers in the \(\lambda\)-calculus. Representing the initial functions and substitution/composition will then be straightforward, but some work is required to show that definition by primitive recursion and minimalization can be adequately represented. The development that follows is standard (Barendregt, 1984).

We begin with a representation of natural numbers as \(\lambda\)-terms. Define \(\ulcorner n\urcorner\) by recursion as:

Intuitively, to represent primitive recursion, one ought be able to proceed by cases because one has to test whether an argument is zero (‘base case’) or non-zero (‘recursion case’). One naturally searches for an analogue in the \(\lambda\)-calculus for an ‘if-then-else’ term-building operation. The \(\bB\) combinator accomplishes this. That is, \(\bB\) (given our representation of the constant-true and constant-false by the \(\lambda\)-terms \(\bT\) and \(\bF\)) has the property that

for all terms \(x\) and \(y\). We need, further, \(\lambda\)-terms representing the number-theoretic operations of successor and predecessor. In other words, we need \(\lambda\)-terms \(\Succ\) (successor), \(\Pred\) (predecessor), and \(\Zero\) (test for zero) satisfying

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